The principal institutions performing research in the area of genetics and biotechnologies in the Republic of Moldova are the following scientiﬁc research institutes operating within the framework of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova:
. • Genetics Research Institute;
. • Plant Physiology Research Institute;
. • Microbiological Research Institute;
. • Botanical Research Institute;
. • Zoological Research Institute; and
• Plant Protection Research Institute.
Furthermore, a number of universities perform scientiﬁc research in the above areas, including:
. • State University of Moldova;
. • State Medical and Pharmacological University „Nicolae Testemitanu”; and
. • State Agricultural University of Moldova
The biotechnology research directions developing most intensively in the above institutions include:
.1. Non-traditional plant improvement methods and techniques:
. • Tissue cultures;
. • Genetic material transmission methods using protoplasm or recombinant DNA fusion techniques;
. • Vegetative plant regeneration;
.2. Products used as gene engineering tools:
. • vectors (plasma derivatives);
. • genes or gene fragments isolated from plants, viruses, bacteria or animals;
. • promoters, activators, operators and speciﬁc function DNA sequences;
. • crop cell lines (inbred cell lines);
. • plant parts (multiplication materials).
Extensive research in the sphere of molecular biology and gene engineering is conducted in the laboratories of the Genetics Research Institute of the Academy of Sciences. The laboratory for molecular genome structure and gene formulation identiﬁed, isolated and cloned regulating sequences for certain reproductive system gene promoters of several superior plants (tomatoes, corn, melandrium), established the primary structure for those sequences, identiﬁed the homology of the regulatory element nucleotide successions with genes of other organisms.
It was the ﬁrst to establish the presence certain successions, demonstrating high homology with the mobile genetic element En in corn, in the genome of the Fabacea family plants. An artiﬁcial chimerical gene was synthesized, producing green ﬂuorescent protein as gene marker in zygotic and somatic plant embryogenesis.
The laboratory for genome instability and genetic engineering created plasmodic vectors produce transgenic potato plants and oligonucleotide primers for molecular identiﬁcation of hepatitis HBV and hepatitis TTV DNA.
A number of laboratories and research units, whose activities have indirect relevance to new biotechnologies, operate within the framework of research institutes, including:
.1. In the Academy of Sciences of Moldova:
. • Genetic Research Institute: Laboratory for molecular genome structure and gene formulation; Laboratory for genome instability and genetic engineering; Laboratory for non-traditional amelioration technologies; Laboratory for ontogenetics and cell engineering; Laboratory for induced genetic variability;
. • Microbiology Research Institute: Laboratory of enzymology; Laboratory for microbial products;
. • Botanical Gardens (Research Institute): Laboratory for embryology and biotechnology;
. • Plant Physiology Research Institute: Laboratory of ontogenesis biochemistry; Laboratory for cell structure and ultrastructure;
.2. In the universities:
. • State University of Moldova: Chair of vegetal biology;
. • State Agricultural University of Moldova: Chair of genetics and plant improvement;
.3. In Ministries and State Departments:
. • Department of Standardization and Metrology: Genetic expertise laboratory;
. • National Grapes and Wine Institute: Laboratory of sparkling wines;
. • Scientiﬁc Research Institute for Corn and Sorghum: Laboratory of biochemistry, physiology and biotechnology;
. • Northern Station for Project Implementation and Chemical Research: Research laboratory;
. • Horticulture Research Institute.
A number of private companies are licensed to provide certiﬁcation services in respect of food, soil and water samples, mineral fertilizers, seeds, agricultural products; or diagnostics services in respect of viral and microbial infections; certain biotechnology components may be present in their work. Such companies include:
. • Center for standardization and quality assessment of canned products (Chisinau);
. • Joint Moldovan-Romanian Venture „Immunotechnomed” (Chisinau);
. • Scientiﬁc Research and Production Association „SPM Group” (Chisinau);
. • „Romanta Plus” S.R.L. (Chisinau).
According to Law no. 567-XIV of 29 July 1999 On the state policy in the research and development sphere, the Supreme Council for Science and Technological Development has been instituted as the central public administration authority in the ﬁeld of research and development. The Consultative Expertise Council, formed of expert committees, activates beside the Council.
The scientiﬁc research in the agricultural and food sector is carried out by a network of institutions subordinated to the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry, including 11 research institutes and 3 branches, 2 scientiﬁc research and production centers, 2 scientiﬁc research stations, and State Agrarian University of Moldova. Those institutions carry out research within the framework of technical and scientiﬁc research programs with co-participation of certain subdivisions within the Moldovan Academy of Sciences. Activities of state institutions in the ﬁeld of agricultural research and development are coordinated by the respective subdivision within the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry. The following branch research institutes should be mentioned in connection with biotechnology research and agricultural plant selection: National Institute of Corn and Sorghum, National Fruit and Grape Research Institute, National Institute of Crop Science, National Institute of Viticulture and Wine within the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry.
In the last 15 years scientiﬁc research in the ﬁeld of agriculture developed in the following directions: soil and water resources, cereals, feed and proteins, technical crops, sunﬂower, tobacco, essential volatile oil-bearing plants and medicinal herbs, vegetables, fruit, viticulture and wine, animal breeding, procession of agricultural raw materials, plant protection, agribusiness mechanization and automation and energy systems, agribusiness economy and dissemination of information.